I was invited to present my research Driven to Excess, on motor traffic and neighbourhood social decay, at the Walk 21 conference in early October. The conference was inspiring, if a little corporate. In particular, the choice to invite a speaker from the Global Road Safety Partnership, an auto industry front group, rang alarm bells. It was great though to be able to meet the people behind much of the research that I had read as part of my Transport Planning Masters program at UWE. People like Daniel Sauter, who together with Marco Huettenmoser conducted research on the social impact of various speeds of traffic, an important addition to the literature.
Leinberger and Aspirational Housing
Christopher Leinberger, a visiting fellow of the Brookings Institute, spoke about the emerging public preference for walkable urban environments compared to driveable suburban layouts. He discussed the ‘walk score’ from 0-100 that real estate agents are increasingly using in the states to identify walkable residential neighbourhoods, where 0-20 represents the need to drive anywhere for your daily needs, and 100 represents walkable corner shop tree-lined urban utopia. Apparently 1 walk score point now represents $500- $3000 in value on a new house. And this insatiable demand for walkable urban housing units in the United States is forecast to increase by 56 million by 2025 (!!!).
Leinberger spoke about how television provides a glimpse into the kind of residential living that our culture desires. In the 1950’s and 60’s it was all shows based in the suburbs- Leave it to Beaver, Brady Bunch, Addams Family etc. People wanted a large yard and detached housing. That has largely been replaced by the dense urban ideal, represented by Seinfeld, Sex and the City, and (blech!) Friends. The dwindling exurbs of California, foreclosed and emptying of people, are the outward manifestation of this aspiration. Somewhere deep down, we can intuitively sense the type of urban planning that is killing us.
The American Love Affair Cools- Industry Responds
With the warming to dense, urban, walkable environments, there has been a corresponding cooling of the love affair with the automobile- particularly among the young generation- those born in the 80’s and 90’s. If this is happening in LA, as reported in the LA Times, don’t doubt for a second that something significant is occurring.
All this combined with the recession has likely generated not a little bit of panic in the auto industry boardrooms. Interestingly, Toyota has just launched its ‘beyond cars’ advertising campaign. This is what car companies do when their focus groups start talking about bicycles….they try to convince us they’re not selling cars- they’re selling all the things that cars have taken from us, like “local lunches, social networks, safer kids, clean drinking water, etc.” A page out of the official corporate greenwash manual to be sure.
“The Global Road Safety Partnership”
Speaking of a desperate industry, needing to associate itself with the walkable communities movement…..for the final plenary session, the conference organisers invited none other than former Daimler Chrysler employee Kathleen Elsig of the “Global Road Safety Partnership”, an organisation set up by the World Bank and car companies to influence the global road safety agenda. Not too unlike the programs the tobacco industry funds to discourage teens from taking up smoking. Lots of good pr allowing them to unload millions of cars onto roads in the global south that aren’t prepared for them. As a result, millions of vulnerable road users will be maimed or killed every year so that Daimler Chrysler can make a buck.
Just to make sure I’m not getting all hot and bothered over nothing here, I did a search of the academic literature. Something interesting came up in the respected academic journal Injury Prevention, entitled Car manufacturers and global road safety: a word frequency analysis of road safety documents– showing that the GRSP attempts to de-emphasize lower speeds and discussion of the safety of walkers and cyclists.
Here is an excerpt from the research:
“After the establishment of the GRSP, there were some concerns that car makers would be unlikely to promote initiatives that conflict with their commercial interests. Our analyses provide little reassurance in this respect. For example, whereas the World report emphasizes the importance of speed reduction, particularly to promote the safety of pedestrians, a recommendation that is based on strong evidence, the GRSP documents emphasize driver training and safety education campaigns, which is contrary to the available research evidence.
Compared to (the World Health Organisation’s) World report on road traffic injury prevention, the GRSP road safety documents were substantially less likely to use the words speed, speed limits, child restraint, pedestrian, public transport, walking, and cycling, but substantially more likely to use the words school, campaign, driver training, and billboard.”
In other words, in response to a health crisis where 30,000 people get seriously injured every day, where mostly poor, mostly brown, mostly self-propelled people get hit by cars, the industry- through its front group the GRSP- advocates not for policies that are proven to keep children’s hearts beating in this hostile motor-filled world of ours, but for programs that are unlikely to affect car sales or the dominance of drivers on public roads. Not to be dramatic about it or anything. But to prevent the heartbreak of a parent just one time. One less car sold. Twenty seconds in the journey of a driver. These things make a difference, but to the car industry the risk of allowing auto-hegemony to slip is apparently not worth it. The GRSP has also been scrutinised by the always vigilant George Monbiot.
At the very least, a mistake on the part of the Walk 21 conference organisers to invite her. At the worst, a dangerous willingness to provide a platform to a group that lobbies against peer-reviewed evidence, putting millions of brown, voiceless people in harm’s way just to sell a few more million set of wheels. Hardly the kind of image the conference needs as it tries to include the majority world, while inducing a new generation of expense account consultants, city planners, and starry-eyed urbanists to shell out for 2010 and fly thousands of miles to pat each other on the back and eat fancy corporate-funded hors d’oeuvres.
When it came time for questions, I gulped down a sushi roll, walked up to the microphone and asked, “Ms. Elsig, do you think an effective strategy in the fight against the global road safety pandemic would be to sell fewer cars?” A muttering rippled through the hundreds in the audience- how would a representative of the auto industry answer this one? She answered, “well that’s a loaded question…..hah hah hem hah….local communities should develop their own sustainable transport plans blah blah….” So thank you, Ms. Elsig I’ll take that as a yes. Nice to know we have you on the record on that matter….
Steve Heminger Maintaining Tremendous Carbon
A ghost from my Bay Area bicycle advocacy days, Steve Heminger, Executive Director of the San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission (the MTC), gave the plenary talk on the Thursday about how (NEWSFLASH!) carbon is an important consideration for transportation planning in Northern California (41% of CO2 emissions are from transport in the Bay Area, compared with 14% globally) . And something about how pedestrian planning was about people stepping in doggie doo, and how cars run over not only the poo but the dog as well. Subsequent chuckles of semi-comprehension from the audience. (Did he just make a joke about dead pets? Cringeworthy…)
Steve showed a pie chart of how the Bay Area spent its transportation funds, with more than 80% going to maintenance and operations, and how the burden of maintaining the region’s highway system grows more onerous each year. Of course it’s not helping our carbon emissions that 10% of the region’s federal funding goes toward expanding those highways, placing a progressively greater burden on planning agencies.
He went on to moan a bit about how the carbon reductions for the transport sector seemed insurmountable, but boasting about how the Bay Area was at least beginning to worry about the problem. Yes but, continuing to expand the system that we desperately need to begin to wind down would make it more difficult, wouldn’t it Steve? There was the sense from his talk that all was fine and dandy with our current transport system, if only we could deal with those pesky carbon emissions.
So, I hear now from sources in the Bay Area, that under the leadership of Heminger, the MTC has scuttled its climate protection initiative that would have funnelled money into non-motorized projects and re-channelled it into Heminger’s dirty little baby- a ‘freeway performance initiative.’
So much for bold leadership in a time of crisis.
This is really a reflection of the ideological position held by the elected officials that make up the MTC- that Earth’s atmosphere is a troublesome burden better put off for another day- kinda like the US/ UK attitude toward the Copenhagen conference. The truth of course, as many people are realising on their own- is that climate presents us with an opportunity to really kick the fossil fuel habit once and for all- and the dangerous, polluted, noisy, and anti-social streets that result from it. Real green shoots, signs of spring, not corporate false-solution offset it to another day empty greenwash.
It’s not our current government’s fault that the decision was made decades ago to give the green light to personal motoring, but it is their cowardice to admit we were wrong that is hurtling us ever closer- making it more and more likely ever day that the eventual outcome will be catastrophic- perhaps terminal- for our human species.
A good reason to walk in the street I’d say….
-From Toyota’s “Beyond Cars” Greenwashing Campaign
“The street is quite anonymous- we only know our immediate neighbours”
“Our 4-year old girl has a constant cough and we limit the amount of time she spends outside…..we’re constantly breathing in pollution”
-From my research in Bristol with residents of Muller Rd (21,000 cars/ day)