An endangered fin whale was impaled on the bow of a Princess cruise ship in Vancouver in July, highlighting the damage that large ships cause to marine mammals
Norwegian Cruise Lines tried to charge me $55 for the “Behind the Scenes” tour of the Jewel, but when I mentioned that I wrote a ‘travel blog’, they made an exception and let me join the tour free of charge.
The tour included meeting the captain on the bridge, touring the laundry room, garbage and recycling area, theatre, galley, and food storage facilities and gave me a deeper insight into the inner workings of the ship. Even though I’m sure they made sure everything was ‘ship shape’ in advance, I was still able to discover some things about the cruise industry that weren’t so pure.
I cover this stuff on my blog not just to take a swipe at Norwegian Cruise Lines, but to increase pressure on the entire industry to prioritise environmental considerations in their operations. Similar coverage has led to improvements in discharges at sea and recycling among other things.
To be fair to NCL, according to Friends of the Earth’s Cruise Ship Environmental Report Card the company rates among the most environmentally friendly cruise lines, getting a “B-” overall. Of course this grade is relative, and it is staggering to think that most cruise lines perform worse than the Jewel, given what I saw and heard during my 11 days at sea.
During the tour I had a chance to interview the captain and the environmental officer on board about issues such as whale strikes and carbon emissions, two of the many unsavory aspects of the cruise industry. Indeed I detected not a little bit of discomfort when I brought up these touchy subjects.
The Captain had some interesting opinions on climate change...
First up was a chance to meet the captain on the bridge. After a presentation of the instrument and navigation equipment, we had a chance to ask questions. I asked, “Captain, surely you are aware of the recent unfortunate incident where a cruise ship arrived in Vancouver harbour with a dead endangered whale impaled on its bow. What do you do to avoid killing or injuring marine mammals while at sea?” He admitted that radar was powerless to detect whales, and a visual scan of the sea, together with last minute attempts at course changes were all they could do to avoid the carnage. You can imagine it’s not easy to change the course of a massive ship, and he acknowledged whale strikes were probably quite common and “really unfortunate.” Even aside from the discharges, emissions, and waste inherent in cruising, there is no doubt that, unseen beneath the waves, the hull of a cruise ship the size of the Jewel is striking and its propellers are mutilating a large number of whales, porpoises, and other marine life. If fishing fleets are equipped with sonar to detect schools of fish, I don’t see why cruise ships can’t use the same technology to detect marine mammals and avoid them.
Where the reality struggles to meet the rhetoric: Port of Halifax
I also asked the Captain about carbon emissions, about the fact that the Jewel emits more than one tonne of carbon into the atmosphere every minute. His answers were very revealing. I asked him what NCL was doing to reduce this major climate impact, and he replied “that it was up to the oil companies to produce fuel with less carbon” and “the government should reduce taxes on fuel” which- to anyone who understands the nature of the climate crisis- represents a significant and dangerous misunderstanding of the nature of the problem. Clearly he was confusing carbon dioxide with carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide or particulate pollution. The only thing that would help reduce emissions of carbon dioxide would be to use less fuel, to make the engines and on board energy use more efficient. Or perhaps use natural gas to power the engines, though they were not built to burn CH4. And of course lowering taxes on fuel would just reduce any incentive to conserve.
A floating Las Vegas, courtesy of cheap bunker oil...
The waste of energy on board is staggering. When in port at Halifax, we were walking back to the ship at night and the Jewel was lit up like a Christmas tree, her smokestacks belching burnt bunker fuel smoke, doing nothing good for the lungs of the residents of Halifax nor the global climate. Some ports have now installed electrical hook ups so that cruise ships need not run their engines for power while at port, but of course the emissions are just being transferred from the ship’s engines to a power plant, most likely in some deprived neighborhood nearby.
It’s scary that ignorance of the nature of climate change still permeates senior staff of companies like NCL. In the year 2009 there is no excuse for this.
It’s not just energy that is wasted aboard cruise ships. According to the environmental officer on board, the Jewel disposes over 2500 gallons of food overboard per day– more than one gallon of food waste per day going to “feed the fishes” as their glib environmental program proclaims.
Roughly one gallon of food per day is tossed overboard for every passenger aboard the Jewel, an incredible waste
Most of this doesn’t come from plate scrapings but from the inherent waste from ‘freestyle’ buffet dining. After four hours, everything is thrown away. This lack of respect for the true value of food is only possible because of bargain basement oil making food production artificially cheap. The whole enterprise is based on cheap oil and unconstrained carbon emissions. NCL, like many other industries, has its head buried in the sand, and is particularly vulnerable to rises in oil prices and limits on carbon. It not only serves the environment for passenger ship companies to make significant changes in their operations to reduce waste, it’s also sensible from an economic perspective.
As far as solid waste is concerned, it appears that NCL does a decent job recycling the ‘easy’ stuff like cans and bottles, but chooses to incinerate quite a bit that could be recycled, like cardboard and paper- even 10% of plastic waste, which leads to some pretty nasty emissions like dioxins.
The chemicals produced on board are pretty shocking too. They have a huge photography business on board the ship, with staffers snapping photos of you many times during the cruise. All of these shots are printed out and displayed for sale, whether you buy them or not. According to the photo staff, only about 2% of the photos are ever bought, with 98% being thrown away. This causes a huge amount of unnecessary photochemical and paper waste.
When Leah and I were standing in the queue to disembark at Lerwick, we overheard a woman who mentioned that there was a bad smell coming from her drain. She had reported this to the staff, who came and poured a large amount of bleach in a vain attempt to eliminate the smell. The outlet of the sinks goes to the grey water systems, and it is very likely that chlorine bleach is making its way directly into the ocean. I asked the environmental officer about this incident and ‘whether it was NCL policy to dump bleach down the drains.’ He said no it wasn’t and that he would investigate.
Is it the 'end of the line' for seafood within a generation or two if we continue on as we are?
There is no doubt that our poisoned, over-fished oceans are in serious trouble. I keep meaning to see the film “End of the Line,” a wake up call about this growing crisis. According to the film, the oceans will essentially be devoid of most edible fish within about forty years if we continue overfishing and abusing our oceans. NCL claims to ‘meet or beat’ environmental regulations, but clearly the reality is failing to meet the rhetoric.
The tactics that NCL (and most other cruise lines) use to extract money from their passengers are pretty revolting. It was clear that they depend heavily on the extras charged on board: drinks, gambling, specialty restaurants, shore excursions, and bingo. Especially Bingo. A Dutch guy who I met calculated that they take in about $10,000 from retirees hoping to win big, but award only 4 prizes of $250. A tidy profit of nearly $9000 per game.
I am proud to say that my total onboard bill came to the tidy sum of $0. I figure I probably cost NCL money. So, if that’s true, according to Chris Hutt’s comment on my earlier post about being responsible for carbon emissions in direct proportion to how much profit a company makes off of you, does that mean I have a negative carbon footprint?
The 1100 staff aboard the Jewel are paid slave wages and have virtually no job security
According to the Dutch guy who spoke confidentially with several of the staff, the junior stewards make only about $500/ month (less than $6000/ year) including tips, work at least ten hours per day, and have to share a small cabin with 3 others. Most are from the Philippines. Once they finish 10 months with NCL, they have to go to a different company. This is a fairly obvious way to avoid their employees unionising and demanding better pay and working conditions. Most cruise ships, including the Jewel, are based in the Bahamas because of the country’s lax labor and environmental standards.
A metaphor for the cruise industry? An apple that we got from the 'Chocaholic Buffet' was beautifully dipped in chocolate, but when we cut it open it was rotten inside.
Overall, we were more nauseated on board the ship from the conspicuous consumption, waste, and the overt sense of entitlement from many of the passengers than we were from the rough seas. Yet there remains the possibility of a future of ocean travel that places sustainability at the forefront, that recognizes the growing demand for alternatives to aviation, and provides a higher quality of travel experience, based on respect for local cultures, the ocean environment, and the proud history of seagoing.
It is this promise of a different kind of transatlantic voyage that will keep me using boats to get across the Atlantic, even if they’re not perfect environmentally, to speak out where I see abuse, and encourage others to ramp up pressure on the industry, to bring about the kind of low carbon, high quality voyages that we deserve.